The Interim Joint Matriculation Board Examination (IJMBE) is a qualifying examination into Nigerian and Foreign Universities. The examination is primarily for Advanced Level subjects for Direct Entry (200 level) into the Universities and two (2) Ordinary Level subjects (English and Mathematics), which are basic requirements for admission into Universities.

The syllabus for the examination was last reviewed in 2004 and the current review exercise (2012) was undertaken to revise the subject content in line with global changes. The review exercise was conducted in phases, in collaboration with Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDG) and participants were drawn from subject teachers in IJMB affiliated institutions, Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and Chief Examiners of the various subjects.

The revised IJMBE syllabus is designed to be covered in Nine (9) months over a two (2) semester period. The content is structured in such a way that all the topics to be covered in each semester cut across all the examinable papers in the subject so that all aspects of the syllabus “me covered concurrently. At the end of each subject syllabus, list of basic and other reading texts are provided to guide the operators of the syllabus. For effective coverage of the syllabus, a minimum of six (6) lecture hours per week and for subjects with practical component, an additional three (3) hours of laboratory work per week is recommended. Tutorial classes should run concurrently with the lectures.

This revised IJMBE syllabus will be operational in 2013 and students will be examined on the syllabus from . 2014. Detailed syllabus content for seventeen (17) Advanced Level subjects and two (2) Ordinary Level

subjects are presented in this booklet.’






  1. The IJMB Mathematics syllabus is designed to provide a guide for instruction at colleges of advanced studies (A Levels), which prepare students for entry into the 200 level Biology programme in Nigerian Universities. It assumes that students of Biology at this level have completed the ‘O’ Level biology syllabus as prescribed by WAEC/ NECO. The syllabus is planned for delivery over a contact period of at least 9 months.




1.SET, RELATIONS FUNCTIONS AND OPERATIONSThe definition of a set, finite and infinite sets,   equality of sets, subsets     union,     intersection, universal     set,       complements, empty     set,     Venn       diagram symmetric     difference,   power sets   and     De   Morgan’s   laws. Inclusion-exclusion     principle. Elements of relations functions and operationsGenerate     elementary   examples   of functions. Also form simple example -to     elucidate     inclusion-exclusion principle.   De Morgan’s laws need to be proved analytically.     Proofs by Venn diagram are acceptable2weeks/l2hrs
2.SOME       PROPERTIES     OF NUMBER SYSTEM Natural     numbers,     integers, rationals,   irrationals   and     real numbers. Order relations on the set of real numbers.   Open and closed intervals on the number lineGenerate examples of rational and irrational numbers.   Manipulate the algebraic properties of real numbers by concrete examples.   No analytic proof of properties is needed1week/6hrs
3.INEQUALITIES Definition of absolute value for modulus   of   a     real   number. Solving   inequalities   involving linear and quadratic functions. Solution sets of inequalities

Generate       specific     examples     of inequalities such asax + b > 0,ax2 + bx + c> 0,   x – a >

x-b 1,

1, etc. and solve them.

1 week/6hrs

PRINCIPLE                         OFMATHEMATICAL



Intuitive     definition     of       a

sequence     and       a     series.

Arithmetic     and       Geometric

progressions and means.   The

sigma notation.   Evaluation of

∑n, ∑n2   by using mathematical


Generate concrete examples of Arithmetic and Geometric progressions. Also evaluate Arithmetic and Geometric means and know their relationships. Only finite cases need to be treated except in Geometric progression where common ratio is less than one1week/6hrs


5.QUADRATIC AND OTHERPOLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONSElementary       properties       of quadratic   expressions.     Sums and   products   of     roofs   of quadratic                    equations. Applications     to       symmetric functions. polynomial functions of 3rd and 4th degrees that can be reduced to quadratic ones. Remainder and factor theorems.Master the determination of roots by taking   some   concrete     ex. quadratic equations.   Learn to also determine the range of variable in a quadratic   expression   under     given conditions2week12hrs
6.INDICES AND LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONSIndex notation, multiplying and dividing expressions involving indices. Negative and fractional indices. Laws of logarithms. Solutions of simple exponential and logarithmic equations

To demonstrate the application of various bases of logarithms, e.glogab = logcblogca

Proof of various laws of logarithms be given

7.PARTIAL FRACTIONSTypes of partial fractions. Applications of partial fractions in summation of series and expansion of rational functions

Master the techniques to resolve functions such asA     –       A(x + a)(x+b), x2 + bx + c,


(x +a)(x2 +bx + c), etc.

8.DETERMINANT AND MATRICSDefinition and properties of second and third order determinants. Applications of determinants to solve simultaneous linear equations using Cramer’s rule. Algebraic operations, addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices. Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. Restricted to 3 x 3 matrices.Need to work out several concrete examples of determinants and matrics. Not to go beyond Cramer’s rule2weeks/12hrs
9.BINOMIAL THEOREMBinomial expressions. Pascal’s triangular array. The expansion of (a + x)n, where n is a positive integer, and its use where n is a rational index. Determination of the interval of x for which a given Binomial expansion is valid. Approximation and errorsGenerate examples to demonstrate the use of Binomial expansion in calculating errors. Confine to expression involving two terms only2weeks/12hrs

PERMUTATIONS ANDCOMBINATIONSFactorial notation, nPr, “Cr and

simple examples

Generate concrete examples to illustrate how to apply the formulae of “Pr and “Cf. Only simple cases need to be treated1week/6hrs
11.CIRCULAR MEASURESFunctions and their graphs. Odd, even   and   periodic     functions. Trigonometric ratios of angles of   any     magnitude.   Inverse trigonometric functions. Graphs of trigonometric functionsGenerate examples of trigonometric functions and determine the periods, amplitude, phase, etc.2weeks/12hrs



The formulae sin (A + B), cos

(A + B), tan (A + B) and their

proofs. Multiple and half angles.

Simple identities. The solution

of       simple       trigonometric

equations, e.g. acos9 + bsin9 =

Rcos(q”a). Factor formulae

Master the methods of proof involving half and multiple angles in particular. Workout various examples of trigonometric equations2weeks/12hrs
13.SINE AND COSINE RULES Application of sine and cosine rules to the solution of triangles. Heights and distanceMaster various methods of solutions of triangles excluding ambiguous case1week/6hrs
14.PLANE AND POLAR CO-ORDINATESRelations   between     Polar   and Cartesian coordinates.   Plotting and sketching of simple curves whose   polar   equations   are knownMaster the sketch of simple, polar graphs, e.g. r = a + bcosq. Only linear cases are to be treated2weeks/12hrs
15.COMPLEX NUMBERS Definition of a complex number, addition,                     subtraction, multiplication     and division of complex numbers.     Modulus, conjugation argument. Geometric interpretation. Polar representation.   De   Moivre’s theorem. Nth roots of UnityGenerate, various, examples     of complex numbers to   find   their magnitudes     and arguments.     To determine nth   roots of     a   given complex quality. e.g. (1 + i)1/3, i1/5   . No. proof of De Moivre’s   theorem for fractional index is needed2weeks/12hrs
16.LIMITS AND CONTINUITY   OFFUNCTIONSDefinition       of     limit   , and continuity   of     functions   with simple examples. Proof of lim       Sinq-1, qª0 qAsymptotes (parallel to the axes only) in graph sketching. Graphs of algebraic functions (polynomials and simple rational functions), trigonometric functions. Exponential and logarithmic functions to various bases. Knowledge of the series expansion of e* for all x and In (1 + x), for-1 < x < 1.Generate examples to find limits and test continuity at a given point.: No analytic proofs are needed2weeks/12lirs

Total 150hrs


1.DIFFERENTIATIONDifferentiation   from     the   first principle. Meaning of derivative and interpretation as a rate of change. Differentiation of elementary functions. Differentiation of sums, differences, products and quotients. The chain rule. Implicit differentiation. Higher derivatives.   Differentiation   of inverse trigonometric functions, logarithmic and exponential functions. Application to curve sketching. Maxima and minima. Newton’s     approximation   and errorsGenerate     examples     of     Implicit, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions and find their derivatives.   First and second order derivatives only3 weeks/18hrs
2.INTEGRATIONDefinite     integral     and       its representation     as     an       area. Integration   as   die     inverse   of differentiation.   Integration   of elementary functions. Techniques   of     integration   (by partial fractions, by substitution and by parts). Integration using identities and standard formulae. Applications     of   integration   to areas and volumesMaster       various       methods       of integration.   Application   of definite integral to determine area under the curves for simple cases. Only proper integrals need to be treated2weeks/12hrs
3.DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONSFirst order differential equations onlyGenerate some simple examples of first order differential equations and integrate     them.     Only     intuitive understanding of the concept need tobe given1week/6hrs
4.VEC’IORSNotion   of     a   vector,   position vector,   modulus     of   a   vector. Scalar    product     of     vectors. Representation as a directed line segment. Equal, unit, zero and parallel vectors. Position vector of a point dividing a line in a given ratio. Commutative,
distributive, associative and
parallelogram          laws.Components of a vector.
Resolution of vectors into
orthogonal     components.

Resultant of coplanar. Vector
products   of       vectors.

Perpendicular vectors. Scalar product of parallel vectors. Subtraction of a vector as the addition of its additive inverse. Angle between two? Vector equation of a line. Direction vector. Direction ratios and cosines. Distance of a. point from a line. Linear dependence and independence of vectorsMaster the representation anddetermination   of     magnitude   and direction cosine of vectors. Need to concentrate on concrete and simple examples12weeks/12hrs5.CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY OF LINES AND CIRCLES Gradient of a line. Distance between two points. Equation of a linear graph from the gradient and the y-intercept. Division of a line in a given ratio. Equation of a line from two points on the line. Midpoints equation of a line (including the gradient and intercept forms). Point of intersection of two lines. Equation of a line through the point of intersection of two given lines. Equation of a line from a given point and the gradient. Angle between two lines. Parallel and perpendicular lines. Distance of a point from a line. Equation of a circle with a given Centre and radius; with a given diameter. Equation of tangent to a circle.Construct concrete examples of equations of lines. Find out the equations of tangents and normals. Only standard forms need to be considered3weeks/18hrs6.CONIC SECTIONSProperties of Parabola, Ellipse,
Hyperbola,      Rectangularhyperbola, their Cartesian and Parametric equations. Problems involving elimination of Parameters. Equations of tangents and normals. General equation of second degree and conditions     under     which       it represents a pair of lines, circles and other coniesOnly standard forms of conies should be considered2weeks/12hrs7.STATISTICAL MEASURES AND GRAPHSMeasures of control tendency and variation: Mean, Median, Mode, ranges, variation and standard deviation. Histograms and cumulative frequency polygonsConstruct concrete examples of the two measures. Also draw inferences from graphs and interpret. Simple cases only2weeks/12hrs8.PROBABILITYAxiomatic       definition       of probability.     Discrete     sample space.       Events.       Frequency interpretation. Sum and product laws.   Conditional   probability. Dependent   and       independent events. Tree diagramsPerform illustrations with coin and dice throwing experiments. Some simple examples of probability trees should be also constructed2weeks/12hrs9RANDOM VARIABLES Types   of   random     variables. Probability     density   function. Cumulative               distribution function. Expectation, standard deviation and varianceUse concrete examples of both discrete and continuous random variable. Also calculate and interprete expected values and standard deviation of discrete random variable.1week/6hrs10.

PROBABHJTYDISTRIBUTIONSBinomial,   poison     and   normal

distributions;   their   means   and


Concrete examples of these distributions should be constructed. Derivations of these distributions are not required2weeks/12hrs11.REGRESSIONScatter   diagrams.   Regression line   and     its   characteristics. Linear regression equation and curves.     Fitting   of   regression lines by the method of least squares.     The     meaning     of regression   coefficient   and     its estimation from graphs. The use of regression linesSome simple concrete examples should be constructed. No exponential or multiple regression is required2weeks/12hrs12.

CORRELATIONCOEFFICIENTProduct     moment     correlation

coefficient and Spearman’s rank

correlation coefficients

Simple examples of these coefficients should be constructed2week/12hrs13.Revision 1week/6hrs


                    Total 144hrs



  1. The IJMB Biology syllabus is designed to provide a guide for instruction at colleges of advanced studies (A Levels), which prepare students for entry into the 200 level Biology programme in Nigerian Universities. It assumes that students of Biology at this level have completed the ‘O’ Level biology syllabus as prescribed by WAEC/ NECO. The syllabus is planned for delivery over a contact period of at least 9 months.

As much as possible, students are expected to expand their skills in observation, classification and interpretation of biological data, and to develop a scientific attitude to problem solving.   It is also expected that their abilities to apply biological principles in everyday life will increase

  1. Aims and Objectives:

This syllabus has the following aims and objective

  1. To   further   develop candidates’   understanding   of   levels   of organization in living organism
  2. To enhance knowledge of the natural (taxonomic) relationships between the various plant and animal phyla,

iii.       To increase candidates’ capacity to relate structure and function within living systems.

  1. To   develop candidates’   competence   in   application   of simple statistical concepts in biological studies.
  2. To introduce candidates’ to basic concepts in microbiology, as relevant to plant, human and animal life.
  3. To   increase candidates’   understanding   of   simple   ecological concepts and their applications in everyday life.

vii.       To enhance candidates’ understanding of the major principles of genetics and their relevance to heredity.

viii.      To expose candidates to the theories of evolution and the role of natural selection in the evolution of living organisms.


The syllabus is therefore organized into eight (8) major sections, viz:








Examination Scheme:

The IJMB Examination in Biology will consist of two Theory Papers of 3 hours each, which together will constitute 60% of the final mark.

  1. Paper I:   GENERAL BIOLOGY AND BOTANY (Statistics, Ecology, Botany and Basic Microbiology)

Candidates will be required to answer FOUR out of SIX questions. The first question, which will include statistics. in addition to short answer questions covering relevant areas of the syllabus, will be compulsory. The paper will cover the following sections of the syllabus:

Section A:       Plant Tissues   (see Cellular and sub cellular levels of organization)        .

Section B:       Diversity of Organisms (Plants and Plant like organisms):

  1. Protoctista
  2. Algae
  3. Fungi
  4. Plants

Section C:       Form and function of living systems:

  1. Plants
  2. a) Plant structures
  3. b) Nutrition in plants (Autotrophic & heterotrophic Nutrition)
  4. c)           Vascular systems in plants
  5. Transport in plants
  6. d) Respiration (as applicable)
  7. e) Reproduction in plants            .
  8. f) Growth and development
  9. g) Co-ordination (as applicable)

Section D:       Biostatistics

Section E:        Basic microbiology

Section F:        Ecology


  1. Paper II:   GENERAL BIOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY (Genetics and Evolution, Cell

            Biology and Zoology)

Candidates will be required to answer FOUR out of SIX questions. The first question, which will be drawn from Genetics and will include short answer questions covering the relevant areas of the syllabus, will be compulsory.

The paper will cover the following sections of the syllabus:
Section A:       1.         Animal Tissues (see Cellular and sub cellular of Organization

  1. Cell processes

3          Enzymes

Section B:       Diversity   of   Organisms   (Animals   and   Animal like organisms):

  1. Protoctista
  2. Protozoa
  3. Animalia

Section C:       Form and function:

  1. Animals
  2. a) Nutrition in Animals
  3. b) Transport in vertebrates
  4. c) Respiration (as applicable)      ‘
  5. d) Excretion in Animals
  6. e) Support and Locomotion in Animals
  7. f) Reproduction in Animals
  8. g) Growth and development
  9. h) Co-ordination (as applicable)

Section G:       Genetics

Section H:       Evolution

NOTE:            The above grouping of the various sections of the syllabus is for Examination purpose only and is therefore purely for convenience,   inevitably, there are a few areas of overlap (e.g. Cell Biology and Cell Physiology).

Historic background and experimental approaches, which Jed to major biological discoveries, are to be touched upon in appropriate topics to create interest and curiosity in students. While it is necessary that physical and chemical principles underlying biological phenomena be understood, the detailed study of complex chemical processes (e.g. Kreb’s cycle, chloride shift, and unit effect) is not required.


Practical work will form an important and integral part of the course. Candidates will be taken through a course of practicals, based on theory wherever possible and thereby covering all the major topics of the syllabus. These shall be assessed internally and the marks obtained shall constitute a percentage of the Final Mark in Biology.

The IJMB Secretariat may, at any time, requ

In addition, each college will arrange a formal practical examination for its candidates during the course and the mark obtained during this examination shall constitute 20% of the final grade in Biology. The IJMB Secretariat may require the submission of the question papers and the scripts to the Chief Examiners and Moderators for scrutiny.


In this course, practical techniques, such as the use of light microscope, risking slides (not permanent preparations), dissection of plants and animals and rft>w to make biological drawings, should be emphasized. There is no special syllabus for practical work. Some suggestions are listed below:

  1. Introductory Practical- How to make drawings, use of microscope, cell study using plant cells (e.g. onion peels) and animal cells (e.g. cheek scrapings).
  1. Classification:

(a)       Protoctista

  1. Algae
  2. Protozoa

(b)        Fungi

(c)        Plants (Bryophytcs, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms) Animals   (Cnidaria / Coelenterata,   Platyhelminthes,   Annelida, Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata)

  1. Morphology of Angiosperms– Roots, steins, leaves, flowers (floral diagrams and floral formulae; one dicot, one hermaphrodite, one unisexual, one monocot).
  1. Plant Anatomy – Sections of roots, stems and leaves of both monocots & dicots.
  1. Animal Form and Function – A suitable vertebrate (e.g. rat, rabbit, guinea pig), fowl, lizard, etc. to show features and viscera; venous, arterial, digestive and urinogenital systems, heart. Display of external features of above.


  1. Physiology – Food tests, digestion using enzymes, enzyme experiments (effects of varying concentrations, temperatures and pH). Osmosis (using potatoes, yams, onion peels or other suitable plaint materials). Plasmolysis Blood groups. Growth (rate of growth of leaves and, stems).
  1. Transpiration – Relevant experiments (mostly demonstration), e.g. transpiration rates measured by loss of weight methods/cobalt chloride paper, photometer, root pressure (manometer).
  1. Respiration – Use of respirometers (using small insects, plant materials, etc.).
  1. Photosynthesis – Mostly demonstrations of the effects of varying light intensities, CO2 concentration and temperature. Extraction of chlorophyll, measurement of PPS in leaf disks.
  1. Histology – Alimentary canal (stomach ileum and duodenum), liver, kidney, testis, ovary, muscle (cardiac, striated, non-striated, smooth), tissues (epithelial: ileum, duodenum and skin), skeletal tissues (bone, cartilage), connective tissue (including blood).
  1. Ecology – Measurements of abiotic factors, Estimation of populations (plants and animals), investigations of soil organisms (not micro­organisms), Moisture, organic matter, air. porosity and capillarity.
  1. Statistics – Measurements of statistical variables, frequency distributions, cumulative     frequency    curves,     histograms,     frequency     polygons, dispersion (ranges, standard deviation, variance), concepts of probability.

13        Genetics – Mitosis and meiosis (use of slides or squash preparations), demonstration of inheritance using coloured beads, beans, etc. Problems on Mendel’s””laws”, and deviations from them.


Continuous assessment shall form an element of the final examination, accounting for 20% of the Final Mark. This shall consist of:

  1.  Continuously assessed practical work – 10%

2.      Essays and Quiz                                              –           10%







THE GENERALIZED CELL(a) The cell as a fundamental unit of structure and functionA     brief   definition   of     ceil   and summarized form of cell theory


i. Microscopes and Microscopy
Light   and   electron     microscopes.
The parts, drawing and naming of the parts,     functions,   advantages   and disadvantages of a light microscope should be enumerated. Brief account of function of electron microscope,
types,   functions,   advantages   and disadvantages.     Use of dissecting microscopes


ii. Animal and plant cells as seen
under light microscope,
A simple treatment of the structure of cellular   constituents   of   plant   and animal   cells     as   seen   under. Light microscope with emphasis on -shape, structure and functions


iii.   Ultrastructure/Fine structure of the cell

A. detailed   treatment   of     the   fine structure and   functions     of various cellular constituents as illustrated by the electron microscope in plant and
animal   cells   especially:   plant cell wall, membranes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, centrioles, cilia, flagella and chloroplasts, ribosome

iv. Molecular structure of the plasma membrane


–          –   Different and similarities between the fine structures of plant and animal cells should be highlighted


A simple illustration of a triple-layered structure of the cell membrane (i.e. protein-lipid-protein molecules)


(b) Mitosis and meiosis as a basic processes of cell multiplication


i Mitosis- Definition of mitosis, where it takes place and its significance in multiplication for growth and development of living organisms, illustrating the different stages/phases of mitosis and the role played by each phase


ii. Meiosis- Simple definition of meiosis, where it takes place and its significance in the evolution of plants and animals illustrating the different stages and sub-stages of meiosis in both first   and second meiotic division


iii. Gametogenesis- Meiosis as a means of gamete formation with reference to spermatogenesis, oogenesis, microsporogenesis and macrosporogenesis should be briefly discussed and illustrated


iv. Comparison between Mitosis and Meiosis- Emphasis should be given to points highlighting contrasting differences between mitosis and meiosis


v. Introduction to concept of organization in organisms: tissues, organs and systems


Definition and classification of tissues, organs and system as levels of organization


(c) Plant Tissues

i. Parenchymatous tissues

ii. Collenchymatous tissues

iii. Sclerenchymatous tissues

iv. Vascular or Conducting tissues

v. Epidermal and Peridermal       tissue

A study of (i-v) plant tissues, emphasizing composition, distribution, forms and functions of each tissue.


(d) Animal Tissues

i. Ephithelial tissue

ii. Connective tissue Skeletal

iii. Muscular tissue

iv. Nervous tissue

A study of (i-iv) animal tissues, emphasizing types, classification, structures, arrangement, functions and importance of each tissue





A. Practical class on how to make Biological drawings, recording and reporting of practical should be introduced. The use, handling, drawing, labeling and functions of a light microscope should be emphasized



Practicals should be conducted to study plant cell (using onion bulb/tomato fruit) and animal cell (e.g. cheek scrapings). Emphasis should be placed on simple cells constituting the bodies of both plants and animals




















Permanent/prepared slides should be used to allow candidates observe, draw and label chromosomes (e.g. Onion or Lilly root tips under light microscope in a practical class. Emphasis should be given to different stages, nature and behaviour of chromosomes and other associated organelles


Permanent/temporary prepared slides should be used to identify, draw and label the stages and sub-stages of meiosis. Emphasis should be placed on the nature, number and orientation of the chromosomes to identify the stages
















Study of permanent slides of stem (T.S.) to locate, draw and label parenchyma, collenchymas and sclerenchyma cells, relating the structures of these cells to their functions





Permanent slides of the different types of epithelial, connective, skeletal, muscular and nervous tissues should be provided in a practical class stressing the distinguishing features of each and their location in animals body







Provide simple and compound light microscopes, as well as dissecting microscopes


































Provide plain glass slides with cover slips. Provide relevant permanent slides. Provide relevant stains, etc. provide plant materials/specimens































Provide relevant permanent slides



CELL PROCESSES (a) Biological processes in cells

i. Osmosis

ii. Diffusion

iii. Plasmolysis

Outline of definitions and principles. Discuss the significance of these processes in regulating the internal and external environment of cells. Details of physio-chemical equations and equilibria involved are not required. Brief mention of other processes such as haemolysis, phagocytosis and pinocytosis


Conduct simple experiments to demonstrate these processes, using plant and animal materials

Provide potato osmometer, spirogyra filaments, red blood cells, etc. Provide hypotonic and hypertonic solutions126


(a) Characteristics of enzymes and role in biochemical reactions

The importance of biochemical reactions and industrial usage of enzymes should be stressed


(b) Mechanism of enzyme action

i. Lock and key hypothesis

ii. Induced fit hypothesis

The specific nature of enzymes should be emphasized


(c) Enzyme inhibition

i. Competitive

ii. Non-competitive irreversible

Examples of enzyme inhibitors should also include drugs and poison


(d) Co-factors

i. Inorganic ions

ii. Prosthetic groups, and

iii. Co-enzymes

Examples and types of reaction they act on should   be given

Experiment should be undertaken to determine factors such as temperature. pH, enzymes concentration and substrate concentration that affect the rate of enzyme catalysed reactionsProvide relevant enzymes (e.g. invertase) and substrates (e.g. sucrose), etc.63

DIVERSITY OF ORGANISMS(a) The principal groups of organisms. The super kingdoms and the five kingdom system of classificationA general survey of the Super Kingdoms. Eukaryotae. The major differences between Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae. An overview of the 5 Kingdoms of organisms: Prokaryotae, Protoctista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. A note on the status of the protozoa and algae. Distinguishing features of each of the kingdoms. Major differences between plants and animals


(b) Classification

A general idea of the meaning and value of classification of organisms. Definitions of taxonomic terms: Classification, Systematic, Taxon, etc. A mention of the use of molecular biology in taxonomy. A brief discussion of the binomial system of nomenclature and its rules


Engage students     in colleqtion, identification         and classification    of locally       available specimens into their various   groups and sub-groups based on observable external features to illustrate the value of classification and the use   of     taxonomic keys in identificationRelevantspecimens, simple taxonomic     keys . (such as numbered. keys and indented keys)126
5.PROTOCTISTA(a)       Algaei. Morphology and classification.
Outline the major classes/divisions of
the   algae. Study   die   general

characteristics of the phylum.
Classify algae up to the generic level.
Outline    major     diagnostic

characteristics of individual classes

Discuss the range of forms as seen in unicellular, colonial, filamentous, siphonaceous and thalloid genera (e.g. Chlorella, Chlamydomonas, Volvox,Spirogyra, Fucus, Larninaria, etc.)

ii. Importance
Discuss                   economic/ecological

importance of algae (e.g. as basis of aquatic food chains, roles in eutrophication, of water treatment, limestone formation, uses/products, etc.)

(b)       Protozoa

i. Morphology and classification
Outline the major phyla of the
protozoa and their characteristics.
Classify the protozoa up to generic level.

Outline major diagnostic characteristics of individual classes Discuss the range of forms as seen in simple   and     complex. types   using
examples such as Amoeba, Trypanosoma, Trichomonas, Paramecium and Plasmodium

Discuss die economic importance of protozoa

Students. should

collect and classify specimens of algae









Students  should

observe and draw specimens of algal species











Students . should

collect and classify

specimens    of



Students . should observe and., draw specimens and slides or protozoans



Relevant specimensRelevantprotozoan


Relevant     .fun an

1266.FUNGIi. Morphology and classification Outline         the       major       fungal classes/divisions. Study the general characteristics of the phylum. Classify the fungi up to generic level. Outline major diagnostic features of individual classes
Discuss the range of forms and mode of nutrition as seen in unicellular and multi-cellular types, e.g. Yeasts,
Rhizopus, Mttcor, Aspergilus
Penicillium,   Phytophtora,
Mushrooms, etc.


ii. Importance Study the economic/ecological importance of fungi (see section E)

Students should collect and classify specimens of the fungi





Students  should

observe and   draw specimens of fungi


Relevant fungal specimens1267.LICHENSTypes and range of forms. Economic/ecological importance, e.g. in succession, as sources of dyes, etc.   6-




PLANTAEOutline the major groups of plants. Discuss their major differences and characteristics

(a) Bryophyta

i. Morphology and classification
Outline   the   major     classes   of the bryophyta and their characteristics.
Classify the bryophytes up to the generic     level.          Outline     major diagnostic characteristics of the individual classes with reference to representative species, e.g. Riccia,
Marchantia, Funaria, Polytriclium,


Discuss     alternation     of

generations in these plants Discuss major morphological features that facilitated the transition from water to land


ii. Importance Outline economic/ecological roles of these plants, e.g. in succession, soil enrichment, retardation of erosion.


(b) Pteridophyta

i. Morphology and classification
Outline   the   major     classes   of the pteridophytes and  their

characteristics. Classify the

pteridophytes up to the generic level.
Outline the major characteristics of the individual classes with reference to representative species, e.g. the club mosses (e.g. Selaginella), the ferns (e.g. Nephrolepis, Dryopteris, etc.).
Discuss alternation of enerations,
emphasizing the dominance of the sporopliyte and separate existence of the two generations at maturity.
Highlight heterospory and its
significance. Highlight the factors
which contributed to the success of pteridophytes as land plants
ii. Importance

Outline       economic/ecological

importance of the pteridophytes, including .their possible roles in formation of fossil fuels


c) Spermatophyta

i. Morphology and classification
Outline     the     major     classes     of Spermatophyta and their

characteristics.  Classify       the

spermatophytes up to generic level. Comparatively study the major characteristics of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Mention extinct orders of the gymnosperms. Discuss the range of forms (trees, shrubs, herbs) in angiosperms with regards to their adaptations to habitats (aquatic and terrestrial). Discuss the diagnostic vegetative and reproductive features of monocots and dicots with reference to representative species of gymnosperms (e.g. Pinus) and angiosperms (e.g. any flowering plant).

Highlight the development of the seed habit and its significance.

Emphasize the dominance of the sporopliyte and progressive increase in its complexity iv. Importance Discuss the economic/ecological roles of spermatophytes as dominant land flora, which provide food, shelter, clothing, energy, etc. to humans and other animals




Students  should

collect and   classify
specimens     of


















Students  should

examine   and     draw
specimens     of
















Students  should

collect and   classify
specimens     of





Students  should

examine and draw specimens of the pteridophytes
















Students  should

collect, classify and draw specimens of gymnosperms and angiosperms,   monocots and dicots, various groups of dicots as adapted to different habitats




Relevant specimens of




















Specimens of

























specimens   of



ANIMALIAOutline     the       major     groups     of invertebrates and vertebrates.Discuss their major differences and characteristics


(a) Cnidaria (formerly coelentcrata)

i. Morphology and classification
Outline the major classes of cnidaria and their characteristics. Classify the cnidarians up to generic level.
Outline the major characteristics of the classes, with reference to
representative species such as Hydra   and Obelia. Highlight polymorphism. Discuss the range of forms/increase in   complexity   and level of organization of cnidarians as a factor in evolution

ii. Importance Highlight   the     economic/ecological roles of cnidarians in the ecosystems (e.g. marine food chains, corals, etc.)


(b) Platy helminthes

i. Morphology and classification Outline the major classes of the Platy helminthes, and their characteristics. Classify the Platy helminthes up to the generic level.   Outline the major diagnostic characteristics: of   the classes, with reference to representative       species     such     as Taenia,   solium,     Fasciola hepatica, Macrogyrodactylus/ Gyroclactylus/Planaria

Discuss the range of forms/increase in     complexity and level of organization as a factor in evolution

ii. Importance

Highlight the economic/medical roles of platyhelminthes







Students should collect and classify cnidarians specimems





Students  should

examine   and     draw
specimens     of










Students  should

collect and   classify
specimens     of










Students  should

examine and draw specimens of platyhelminthes




Relevant   fresh/

Preserved specimens cnidaria

specimens   of





(c) Nematodai. Morphology and classification
Outline the major classes, of the
nematodes, and the characteristics
of the phylum. Classify the
nematodes up to the generic level.
Outline the major diagnostic
characteristics of the classes, with
reference to representative species, such as Ascaris, Trichinella,Necator, Onchocerca
Discuss the range of forms/increase in complexity and level of organization as a factor ; in evolutionii. Importance;

Highlight the economic/medical roles of nematodes(e.g. in soil & as. parasites of plants, animals, including man)


(d) Annelida

i. Morphology and classification
Outline   the   major     classes   of annelids,     and       discuss       their characteristics.                        Classify     the annelids up to the generic level.
Outline            major                        diagnostic

characteristics of the; classes, with reference to representative species, such as umbricus,.Nereis and Hirudo.

Discuss the range of forms/increase in complexity and level of organization as a factor in evolution. Highlight metameric segmentation, true coelom.

ii. Importance

Highlight the economic/ecological roles of annelids (e.g. in the soil, marine and freshwater ecosystems)



(e) Mollusca

i. Morphology and classification Outline the major classes of the mollusca and their characteristics.

Classify the mollusca up to the generic level. Outline major diagnostic characteristics of the classes, with reference to representative species, such as snails, clams/bivalves, Octopus Outline features of evolutionary significance such as advanced coelom, cephalization, presence of gills shells, etc. Mention fossil molluscs

ii. Importance

Outline the economic/ecological significance of molluses (e.g. as intermediate hosts of disease causing organisms, food, source of ornaments, roles in aquatic food chains, etc.)


(f) Arthropoda

i. Morphology and classification
Outline the major classes of the
arthropods and their characteristics.
Classify the arthropods up to the
generic level. Outline major
diagnostic characteristics of the
classes, with reference to
representative species, such as
spiders, scorpions, millipedes,
centipedes, crayfish, crabs, and
insects from different orders.
Highlight complete and incomplete metamorphosis using examples such as mosquitoes/housefly, cockroach /grasshopper, butterfly/bee.

Highlight features of evolutionary significance, such as reduction of the coelom, development of the exoskeleton, heart and related structures molting and ecdysis, social behaviour and flight in
arthropods.     Factors   related     to success of insects

ii. Importance

Outline the economic / ecological / medical significance of arthropods


(g) Chordata

i. Morphology and classification Outline the major classes of the chordate and their characteristics. Classify chordata up to the generic level.     Outline major diagnostic features   of   the     classes,   with reference to representative species of     hemichordata   (Balanoglossus) and     urochordata     (e.g.     sea squirts/tunicates,   cephodochordata (e.g. Amphioxus)   and     vertebrata (e.g.           fishes,         frogs/toads, lizards/snakes, birds and mammals)

Highlight features of evolutionary significance in     the various sub­groups. Briefly discuss the position of Amphibia as the first terrestrial vertebrates,       and     the     various adaptations for life on land

ii. Importance Outline the economic / ecological / medical importance of the chordate


Students shouldcollect and classify Nematode specimens

Students       should examine and draw nematodes specimens

Students should collect and classify annelid specimens
Students should
observe and draw
specimens    of


Students should collect and classify” mollusca specimens

Students should observe and draw Mollusc specimens

Students should collect and classify arthropods

Students should
observe and draw
arthropods   – •

Students should

collect and classify chordates

Students         should observe   and   draw chordates

Relevant fresh/preserved specimens of Nematodes

Relevant fresh/

preserved of

specimens Annelids

Relevant fresh/preserved
specimens    of






Relevant fresh/ preserved specimens of Chordates



PLANTS(a) Structures in flowering plantsi. Their morphology

– Root

Types         of         roots,         e.g. pneumatophores, fibrous, stilt, tap root,   etc.     Their     distinguishing characteristics related to function

– Stem

Types of stems, e.g. corm, rhizome, runner, etc. Their distinguishing characteristics related to function

– Leaves

Leaf   arrangement and modifications to suit habitat. Dicot and monocot leaf shape and structure in relation to function

– Flower

Types and structure of dicot and monocot flower and function of each part. Differences between the two should be highlighted.

– Fruits

Types of fruits and placentation; Fruit and seed dispersal mechanisms.

ii.       Anatomy of monocot and dicot:

–  Root

–  Stem

–  Leaf

General arrangement of tissues in the three organs in relation to
function and ecological environment (leaf) should be discussed. Root hair structure and function


(b) Nutrition in Plants

i. Types of Nutrition

–   Autotrophic- photosynthesis and chemosyn thesis

Requirements and the process of photosynthesis. Dark and light reactions with cycles drawn to illustrate them. (No need for the biochemical details of substances named). Final products and their significance should be discussed. An outline of chemosynthesis with examples


-Holozoic/ Heterotrophic Mention of plants which trap and digest insects, their habitats and

Designs, e.g. Venus fly trap

–  Mineral requirements of plants

Their sources including chemical fertilizer compositions, roles and deficiency symptoms

– Transport Systems

Explain need for transport system

due to increase in size and change

in     habitat.     Importance   of   the following         processes,         their composition, structure and function

should be stressed

– Water relations

Explain concepts   of     Osmotic, Suction and     Turgor   pressure, plasmolysis (see section A 2a)

– Transport in Xylem

Movement of water and dissolved

mineral salts from soil through root hair to Xylem vessel and ascent of sap together with diagrams

– Transport in Phloem

Movement   of . synthesized   food from leaves to other parts of plants, active transport, effect of ringing should be explained

– Transpiration

Process   and     factors   affecting transpiration

(c) Respiration

i. Ventilation structures

Stomata     apparatus, lenticels.

Mechanism of gaseous exchange

and utilization of end products

ii. Aerobic   and     Anaerobic


Definitions, equations       and examples and uses.   Differences between   aerobic     and   anaerobic respiration.


(d) Reproduction

General   outlines     of Sexual   and Asexual reproduction in plants.


(e) Plant growth and development

Various   definitions of     growth

Should be stated. Rate, pattern and stages of growth with explanation of sigmoid curve various methods of measurement of growth. Meristems should be introduced. Germination, types with named examples. Conditions necessary for growth, light, temperature and mineral requirements, etc. Plant growth substances (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene as inhibitors and promoters). Their location, movement and effects should be mentioned

Named examples of each     should     be observed and drawn

Diagrams   of     L.S. dicot flower examples.         Floral
diagram           and

formula   should     be introduced.

Specimens    of

various fruit types should be dissected (L.S. and T.S.) observed and drawn

Slides of T.S. and L.S. of the three organs.

Growth of maize seedling in dark and light to demonstrate etiolation.

Measurement of photosynthesis in leaf disks

Growth experiments to show deficiency


Experiments to

demonstrate each


Experiments to

demonstrate effect

of     changing light

intensity, –

temperature, wind, measurement of

transpiration rates by loss   of weight method/cobalt

chloride paper,




Set-up an

observation to take

12-48 hours


Diagrams of named

examples mount

and observe pollen and animal pollinated flowers   to show difference


Named     examples

should be examined

and drawn

Grow maize and measure growth. Observe L.S. Onion root tip as e.g. of meristem


Grow Amaranthus/Bryophyllum and show lateral bud inhibition

Provide plants with each type of root, stem,     leaf,   flower

Provide relevant

slides. Refer to

relevant wall charts during teaching

Provide materials for experimental set-ups

Provide materials for experimental set-ups

Provide materials for experimental set-ups. Refer to relevant wall charts during teaching

Provide materials for’ experimental set-ups. Refer to relevant wall charts during teaching

Provide materials

for experimental

set-ups.   Refer     to relevant wall charts during teaching

Provide materials e.g. for experimental       set- ups.     Refer,     to relevant wall charts during teaching


Provide materials

e.g. for

experimental     set- ups. Refer     to relevant wall charts during teaching

Provide relevant pollen types

Provide relevant

fruit and seed types. Refer to wall charts, etc. during teaching

Provide materials for experimental set-ups. Refer to relevant wall charts during teaching


ANIMALS(a) Nutrition in animals

i.       Food    substances:

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, mineral salts and water. Nutritional deficiencies. Brief mentioning of the component of animal and plant carbohydrates, their sources, roles and function. Sources and functions of vitamins, mineral salts, and water


ii. Nutritional types in animal Discuss and give examples of Heterotropic: Holozoic, Parasitic and Saprophytic. Briefly mention subtypes


iii- Structure of teeth Herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, dental formula of each, and their specialization to types of diet


iv. Digestion Organs associated with digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food in animals. Mention digestive enzymes, and their function-;


v. Histology and function of deuodenum, stomach, small and large intestines and liver Structure and functions of different parts of alimentary canal should be highlighted


(b) Transport in vertebrates:

Mention the need for transportation
i. Structure and function of the
mammalian heart and major blood vessels. Mention the structure and functions of main arteries; capillaries and veins, and their differences. General pattern of blood vessels to be treated briefly for understanding of transport of materials between blood and tissues. Mention names of blood vessels, heart   diseases/

arteriosclerosis. Transportation of materials such as excretory products, gases, digested food and nutrients should be treated briefly


(c) Respiration in vertebrates:


i. Ventilating structures
General characteristics of

respiratory surfaces. Mechanism of gaseous exchange in fish, toad and mammal should be explained, including body surface, cutaneous, gills and lungs as ventilating structures. Mention importance of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and the use of ventilators. Muscular depletion of oxygen during heavy exercise


(d) Excretion in animals

Discuss need for excretion

i. Excretory organs
Discuss the kidney (including the
nephron),   liver,   lungs     and   skin, their structure, function,

environmental   temperature.

Mention types and causes of disease of kidney, liver and skin


ii. Osmoregulation and excretion, and their relationship Osmoregulation in freshwater, marine and terrestrial environment, and give” specific examples, e.g. Tilapia (in freshwater), dog fish (in marine) and humans (in terrestrial)


(e) Support and locomotion in animals:

Definition and reasons for locomotion, function of skeleton, the skeleton and supporting systems in animals. Candidates should be familiar with the general plan of mammalian skeleton and different types of joints

Mechanism of Locomotion


– In water

Amoeboid, ciliate flagellate, and swimming, different types of swimming as found in fish. Mention types and functions of fins


– On land

Leaping, looping, hopping, crawling and walking in tetrapods. Mention importance of muscles and the main muscles responsible for locomotion, and how locomotion is achieved by muscles and skeleton


– In air

Treatment of flight in insects and birds. Brief mention of muscles responsible for flight in insects and birds


(f) Reproduction in Animals:


Sexual and asexual, significance and differences between them (e.g. binary, multiple, sporulation, budding, regeneration, conjugation, etc.)


i. Formation of gametes Discuss methods of ensuring fertilization; sexual dimorphism and sexual display/behaviour relating to ensuring fertilization process


ii.Male and female reproductive
systems in higher vertebrates
Mention  their       differences;

histology   of     testis   and   ovary, structure of sperm and ovum

iii. Rhythmic cycles in animals Brief     mention   of   monoestrous, polyestrous and menstrous cycles (e.g. fox, dogs, rabbits/humans)


iv. The sexual cycle in mammals
Use humans as examples, discuss
the need for birth control mention
the   dangers   involved     in   early pregnancy and            unwanted pregnancy. Brief   mention     of
associated        with unprotected

sex, including HIV/AIDS.

Describe the event of pregnancy,

(fertilization), development of embryo and birth. Childhood diseases.


v. Comparison of reproduction in
insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
Include method of fertilization,
number of eggs, complete and
incomplete                      metamorphosis,

parental   care, viviparity,

ovovivipaprity, oviparity in animals should be highlighted, and their significance as it       relates     to survival of the young


(g) Chemical co-ordination in animals

Pituitary hormone, ‘ thyroxin, adrenalin, insulin, gonadal

hormones,   including   their     site, secretions, functions, effect of over and   under     secretions   should   be mentioned. Feedback mechanisms


(h)   Nervous     co-ordination   in Animals

Including parts of brain and their functions structure and function of spinal chord


– Reflex and voluntary actions

Including reflex arc, and   actions

such as blinking of the eye, knee

jerk, withdrawal of hand from hot

objects. Conditioned reflex


– The central nervous system

– Autonomic nervous system


(i)   Structure     and   function   of mammalian ear and eye

Describe accommodation.

stereoscopic vision and inversion of retina; Defects of the eye and their correction; Hearing and balancing

Test for starch, reducing sugar, protein, fats and oil.Test for starch,
reducing  sugar,


protein, fats and oil.


Compare digestive systems of Reptile or Amphibian, bird and that of a mammal indicating their differences and similarities


Histology   and

functions of various
sections of the
digestive   tract,

including liver and pancreas

Examine and draw
slides of

composition     of

blood,  arteries, veins, capillaries and heart tissues. Dissect a mammal; expose the circulatory system and draw.

Examine and draw the respiratory structures of fish, toad and mammal

Muscular depletion of oxygen during running

Examine and draw the L.S. of mammalian kidney, skin and liver

Individual bones of
the mammalian
skeletal system
should be emphasized

Observe slides of sections of the mammalian testis and ovary. Dissect a

small   mammal     to the male and female urinogenital systems and associated organs

Observe   and     draw

from models of eye

and ear

Provide specimens
for dissection. Refer to relevant

models/wall charts. Provide relevant slides

Provide relevant models/ wall charts

Provide slides specimens dissection

Provide relevant specimens for dissection

Provide       relevant models/ wall charts

Provide       relevant models/wall charts

Provide relevant permanent slides.

Provide suitable mammalian


Refer to relevant models/ wall charts

during teaching

Provide relevant models charts for exercises




(a) Measurement

Classification of physiological

concentration of biological fluids,     measurements   of some   optical     machinery into continuous variables (e.g.   size,   height     and weight) and discontinuous

variables,       should       be

outlined and discussed


(b) Attributes

Attributes such as colour of skin, eye, hair coat of animals, seeds, types of flowers, tongue rolling,

taste of phenylthio carbamide (PTC) and Blood Group (ABO system) should be highlighted and explained


Candidates are   to observe and record these attributes of

animals and plants


Candidates to collect height and weight of students of the same age group

Suitable plant   and

Animal populations

should be used for

generating data


The class should be used as a population for collecting these


i. Sources of data

Different sources where data can be collected should be outlined and explained

ii. Methods   of     data collection Methods experimentation, interviews, questionnaires, etc.   and     the   advantages and disadvantages of each method         should be discussed


(b)        Data Presentation
i. Tabulation

Classification of data, by tallying, construction of frequency tables should be taught. Characteristics of frequency table (class size, class interval, class limits and class mid-point should be outlined and explained

ii. Presentation

* Charts
Processes of constructing
histograms, frequency polygons. Cumulative frequency polygons should be taught

* Pie-Charts

pie-chart highlighting how
sections represent different
proportion of data

The data collected on heights, weight, etc. could be used to classify and construct frequency tables, Histograms and Pie-charts

The data collected on heights, weight, etc could be used to classify and construct frequency tables, Histograms and Pie-charts



a)  Measure of Location
Definition of mean, mode
and median, simple formula and         basic computation methods using single and grouped as data should       be highlighted


(b) Measure of Dispersion
The computation of range, standard deviation, standard error and variance should taught


Measurements oil height and weight   or other   generated data could be used to for this exercise








VIRUSES(a) General characteristics of viruses

(b) Viruses and Diseases
i. Plant diseases Mosaic diseases of plants, mosaic disease of flowers, swollen shoot diseases of plants should be outlined and explained. Mode of transmission and control should be discussed


ii. Human and Animal diseases Role of viruses in diseases like poliomyelitis. Yellow influenza,measles, rabies and common cold should be outlined.
Others such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, MAD-COW and their mode of transmission should be mentioned




Refer to relevant wall charts during teaching

16.BACTERIAa) General characteristics of


(b) Bacteria and Diseases

i. Plant diseases Blight   diseases   giving relevant           examples should be discussed (e.g. blight     of     cassava, potatoes) ii. Animal diseases Pathogenic   effects   of bacteria on human and animals.           Relevant examples of diseases should be outlined and discussed, with emphasis   on     sexually transmitted diseases


(c) Uses of Bacteria
i. Agriculture

Role     of   bacteria   in decaying     of     organic compounds, Nitrification of proteins in   dead     plants   and animals in soil, Nitrogen fixation and conversion of cow dung and animal wastes should be outlined and discussed. De-nitrification of nitrates to free nitrogen


ii. Industrial uses

– Food

Ripening of cheese, flavouring of foods, fermentation, curding of milk should be discussed

–   Manufacture

Curing and ripening of tobacco and tea leaves; fermentation of leaves, retting of fibres, tanning, and formation of vinegar from alcohol should be discussed


iii. Sanitation The degradation     of sewage in septic tanks should   be     mentioned and explained


v. Medical uses of bacteria MBacteria as sources of antibiotics. Names of the bacteria and antibiotics should be outlined and discussed. The role of bacteria in the control of putrefactive and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine should be mentioned. Production of cellulobiose for the digestion of cellulose in ruminants should be highlighted


v. Research The use of bacteria in biotechnological research     should     be highlighted (e.g.   single cell proteins – SCP)


(d) Control of bacterial activity

–          Food preservation

Methods, e.g. salting, freezing, drying. mzatiuii, canning, smoking, etc. should be outlined and discussed –

– Sanitation

Use of antiseptics should be highlighted Refer to relevant wall charts during teaching18 17.

FUNGI(a) General characteristics of fungi (b) Importance of Fungi .

i. Food processing Source   of   food,     e.g. mushroom, vitamin   B and   use     of   yeast   in baking should be mentioned


ii. Industrial uses Fermentation             for production   of   alcohol should be mentioned


iii. Medical uses

Outline   their     roles giving examples iv. Agricultural Fungi   as     decomposers be discussed


v. Plant and animal diseases

Diseases like potato blight, smut   of maize and wheat,     rust     of sugarcane, mildew   of grapes, athletes foot, ringworm,   candidiases etc. should be highlighted

12-SECTION F: ECOLOGY18.BASIC ECOLOGICAL CONCEPTS- Niche, habitats and macro-habitats, species, population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphereCandidates should also undertake a guided detailed field study of simple ecological communities, such as a road-side pond or a small gardenFieldwork129(including field work19.

THE ENVIRONMENT- Biotic and abioticfactors

Mention should be made of how   various     biotic (e.g.                   parasites, predators,       etc.)     and abiotic     environmental factors                     (e.g. temperature;     rainfall, humidity,   etc.)     affect organisms     and     their populations

– Ecological Succession                 and dominance in a simple community     should   be studied

Balance in nature (i.e.   the   dynamics     of populations)

Mention should also be made   of factors     (e.g. natality,         competition, mortality,     immigration, emigration,       predation, etc.)   that   maintain     a balance in communities

Candidates should study how some abiotic factors are measured using appropriate equipment,     e.g. thermometers, rain             gauge, barometer, secchi disc, etc.Provide field equipment for fieldwork12620.

SOIL BIOLOGY(a) The soil ecosystem-     Soil formation

–     Soil profile

Soil     temperature, water and pH

Simple treatment of soil formation processes, texture (particle sizes) and profile should be undertaken. Candidates should also study how environmental factors affect soil organisms and soli fertility


Candidates should carry out simple

experiments     to determine     soil moisture, organic matter   and     air contents, as well as     porosity and capillarity

Provide           relevant




THE WEB OF LIFE- Symbiosis Interactions       between and   among     organisms (e.g. parasitism,commensalisms, predation,     mutualism, co-operation, etc.) should be highlighted

– Food chains     and food webs

– Ecological pyramids Candidates should be able to draw common food chains or webs, and construct ecological pyramids of numbers, biomass and energy for simplified communities

12622.HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT- Agriculture Ecological consequences  of traditional and modern agriculture should be discussed; advantages and disadvantages of each system (e.g. monoculture and plant diseases, chemicalfertilizers and pollution,
and loss of biological
diversity, etc.) and other
human related activities
(e.g.       overgrazing,


deforestation, wild fires,
urbanization,  etc.) should be mentioned

Air and water pollution

Knowledge of sources of pollutants will be required   of candidates.

Candidates should also
be able to list specific
pollutants (e.g. radioactive materials carbon II oxide and carbon IV oxide, crude oil, chlorofluorocarbons

[CFCs],, etc.) then-effects and how they can be controlled. Simple mention of the problems of global climate change, the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion


–   Sewage     treatment and sanitation Elementary

consideration of septic tank and sewage treatment systems with emphasis on the importance of proper sewage disposal. The importance of the recycling of wastes should be outlined  12623.

APPLIED ECOLOGY- Biological Control

Some common examples of biological control should be given. Mention should be made of the advantages of biological control over conventional chemical control of pests

–   Conservation of nature (biodiversity)

The importance of wise (sustainable) use of renewable natural resources   (i.e.     wildlife and     fisheries,     water, forest, etc) should be emphasized. Some techniques     widely employed   to  achieve   conservation (e.g.) creation of nature reserves, legislation, etc) should be discussed management (IPM) Highlight the principles of IPM as a systematic-approach involving biological”, chemical, physical, etc. means of pest control management


A field trip to nearly natural reserve should be considered important

Fieldwork126SECTION G: GENETICS24.

HEREDITYDefinition of terms in genetics,   heredity     and variation, gene, phenotype, genotype, omozygous, heterozygous, homologous,   dominant, recessive,   monohybrid cross/ratio,       dihybrid cross/ratio, Test cross/back cross, codominance, allele (allelomorphs), lethal genes, linkage, crossing over, sex-linkage, polyploid,         clonings, genetic         engineering, locus, traits, etc.


(a) Mendel’s work-
Inheritance of characters, General     treatment    of
Mendelian principles and their deviations.


(b)  The Mechanisms of inheritance

i. Chromosome and gene theory of inheritance

A connection between the Mendelian laws of inheritance and the behaviour of the nucleus in cell divisions, i.e. mitosis and meiosis should be used to explain the theory of inheritance. Simple treatment of nature and structure of genes   and DNA   as   the     basis   of inheritance


ii.   Linkage and crossing over

Definition of linkage crossing over and their importance

(e) Mutation

–  Definition of mutation and its importance in the evolution of plants and animals

–  The different types of genome, chromosome, gene and plasma/extra nuclear mutations, nature and importance should be discussed

The types of mutagenic agents and effects, physical, chemical and high temperature should be briefly discussed principles of heredity


i.     ABO blood group; Rhesus factor (system); Sickle cell anaemia
The ABO blood group and Rhesus factor/system should be discussed with special
emphasis on antigen and antibody relationships. Use of blood grouping in marriage counseling, blood transfusion and Simple treatment of the significance of se. x- linkage of characters with examples (haemophilia, bald- headedness, and colour blindness)


iii. Plant and animal improvement through breeding and genetic engineering

– The applications of genetics in agriculture, behaviour, social structure, ecology, law
and religion should be briefly discussed

– Genetics, medicine and genetic engineering.
The concept of gsne therapy, nuclear, cell and molecular cloning should be discussed

(d) Nature of Gene -Definition of gene. The structure, composition and significance, of DNA and RNA as hereditary materials highlighting their differences should be discussed

– DNA replication and its theories should be briefly discussed

A practical class should be conducted to allow candidates measure height, weight of individuals organisms of the same age group and explain, the variation

Students should be exposed to charts. Use of models, e.g. beaded chain to illustrate chromosomes

Use class as a population to generate data



The contributions of Lamarck and Darwin to the theory of evolution should be outlined. Simple mention of examples of convergent